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What causes nausea or vomiting

There are numerous causes of nausea and vomiting. These symptoms may be due to the following:

acute gastritis

central causes (signals from the brain)

association with other illnesses remote from the stomach

medications and medical treatments

mechanical obstruction of the bowel.

Acute gastritis

Acute gastritis (gastro=stomach + it is= inflammation) is often caused by an offending agent which irritates the lining of the stomach. Examples of these include


 Infections are often the cause, whether it is a common virus or an infection that is contracted from travel. There may be associated crampy upper abdominal pain, fever ,and chills may be present. Common viral infections include noroviruses and rotavirus. Parasitic infections often are associated with diarrhea but may also have a component of nausea and vomiting. Infection by bacteria in the Helicobacter family (like H. Pylori) can also be the infectious agen

Stomach flu: 
Stomach flu is a non-specific term used to describe vomiting and diarrhea associated with a viral infection. It should not be confused with influenza, whose symptoms include fever, chills, cough, and myalgias (muscle pain)

Food poisoning: 

Food poisoning may cause significant vomiting and usually is caused by a bacterial toxin. Symptoms begin within a couple hours of eating contaminated or poorly prepared food and may last for 1-2 days. Sources of food poisoning include Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella, E. coli, Listeria, or Clostridium botulinum (botulism).

Other stomach irritants:
 alcohol, smoking, and non steroidal anti-inflammatory medications such as aspirin and ibuprofen may irritate the stomach lining.

Peptic ulcer disease:
 Peptic ulcer disease can range from mild irritation of the stomach lining to the formation of a defect in the protective lining of the stomach called an ulcer. 

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD,
 reflux esophagitis): Nausea or vomiting is also associated with irritation of the lining of the esophagus


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